Electronic Journal of Biotechnology ISSN: 0717-3458
  © 2001 by Universidad Católica de Valparaíso -- Chile
Vol. 4 No. 2, Issue of August 15, 2001

Table 4. Genetic transformation of wheat for pathogen and pest resistance.



Mode of Action

Construct (Promoter)



Coat Protein

Barley yellow mosaic virus

Coat protein-mediated resistance

pEmuPAT-cp (35S)

Karunaratne et al. 1996

Ribosome Inactivating protein (RIP)

Hordeum vulgare

Specific glycosidases that remove a conserved adenine residue from the large rRNA of the large ribosomal subunit

Inactivates ribosome and blocks translation elongation

pRipChi (Ubi)


I-Sec1 (35S-RTBV intron)

Interfere with normal plant regeneration and development (Bliffeld et al. 1999)

Moderate/no protection against Erysiphe graminis (Bieri et al. 2000)


Oryza sativa

Cell wall degradative enzyme Act on cell wall polysachharide, chitin

pAHG11 Chi11_Ubi pro-bar-nos

Lack of transgene expression (Chen et al. 1998; Chen et al. 1999)

  Hordeum vulgare   Ubi Increased resistance to infection by Erysiphe graminis (Bliffeld et al. 1999)

Thaumatin like Protein (tlp)

Oryza sativa

Alter membrane permeability and/or
Cellular signal transduction cascades

pGL2ubi-tlp (Ubi/tlp/CaMV 35S/hpt)

Enhanced resistance against Fusarium graminnearum in T1, T2 and T3 plants (Chen et al. 1999)

Stilbene synthase

Vitis vinifera

Phytoalexin synthesis Synthesizes the phytoalexin trans-reveratrol

pGBI, pGBII (Vst1)

Induction of stilbene synthase mRNA after wounding and infection in T1 and T2 plants (Leckband and Lorz, 1998)

Killer protein (KP)

Ustilago maydis infecting virus

Virally encoded antifungal protein. Inhibit growth of sensitive cells

pUbi:KP4 (Ubi)

Increased endogenous resistance against Tilletia tritici (Clausen et al. 2000)


Galanthus nivalis agglutinin (GNA)

Binding to the insect gut surface

pRSsGNA (Rss1) pUbiGNA (Ubi)

Decreases the fecundity, but not the survival of the grain aphid Sitobion avenae (Stoger et al. 1999)

Proteinase Inhibitor

Hordeum vulgare (Barley trypsin inhibitor-CMe)

Regulators of endogenous proteinases

Lower protease activity in insect guts leading to direct shortage of amino acids

C-Me (BTI-CMe)


Inhibition of early insect larvae in transgenic seeds; No significant effect on leaf feeding insects (Altpeter et al. 1999)

Sagittaria trifolia [arrowhead proteinase inhibitor (API)]

Serine proteinase inhibitor


Introduction of arrowhead proteinase inhibitor genes into wheat genome by pollen tube pathway (Mu et al. 1999)

bar and pat: encodes a phosphinothricin acetyl transferase
gus: encodes b -glucuronidase
hpt: encodes hygromycin phosphotransferase
35S: Cauliflower Mosaic Virus (CaMV) 35S promoter
Ubi1: maize ubiquitin promoter
Rss1: Rice sucrose synthase 1 promoter
Vst1: promoter of Vitis stilbene synthase gene
RTBV: rice tungro baciliform virus

Supported by UNESCO / MIRCEN network